刘刚:构建以“双创”为导向的新经济
2017-05-25 

构建以双创为导向的新经济[[1]]

To Build a New Economy [[2]] with Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation as Orientation

----基于国家双创示范基地的调查

Based on an Inquiry into national demonstration centers of Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation ("MEI")

刘刚

Liu Gang

南开大学滨海开发研究院

Binhai Development Institute of Nankai University

南开大学经济研究所

Nankai Institute of Economics

中国特色社会主义经济建设协同创新中心

Collaborative Innovation Center for China Economy

2017年5月20日

May 20, 2017

各位嘉宾、各位媒体界的朋友、各位老师和同学们,上午好!

Distinguished Guests, Friends from the Media, the Faculty and the Fellow Students,

Good Morning!

从1978以来,工业化的成功使中国在2001年成为“世界工厂”,2010年名义GDP超过日本,成为世界第二大经济体,被誉为“中国奇迹”。为了推动中国制造向中国创造迈进,早在2006年,国家正式提出建设创新国家。2012年之后,围绕着创新驱动发展战略和“双创”经济发展,政府密集出台了22件文件。如何继“世界工厂”之后成长为具有影响力的全球科技创新中心,是中国新的国家战略的核心取向。

Since 1978, the success of industrialization has driven China to become a "World Factory" in 2001. With nominal GDP surpassed Japan in 2010, China became the second biggest economy in the world and was regarded as "China Miracle”. To facilitate the transition from "Manufactured in China" to "Innovated in China", China officially proposed the strategy of building an innovative nation as early as 2006. After 2012, the government intensively formulated 22 documents centering on Innovation-driven Development Strategy and" Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation (MEI)”. After growing to be a "World Factory", how to become an influential global scientific innovation center has become the core orientation of new national strategies.

一、正在发生的质变

I. Ongoing qualitative changes

近年来,中国的经济增长速度呈现出下滑态势,从2011年的9.5%持续下降至2016年的6.9%。与经济增长速度下滑相比较,包括三次产业结构、新增就业人数和研发投入占国内生产总值比重在内的一系列结构性数据却表明中国经济正处于转型和发展之中。2012年第三产业增加值占GDP的比重首次与第二产业持平,达到45.3%,2015年超过50%,2016年进一步增加至51.6%。同样,在经济增长速度下降的背景下,我国的城镇新增就业人口却在持续增加,从2011年1221万增长到2015年的1312万人口。从2012年至2016年,研究与试验发展(R&D)经费年均增长率为12.34%。2016年全年研究与试验发展(R&D)经费支出15500亿元,占国内生产总值的比重达到2.08%。

In recent years, China has witnessed economic downturn, dropping from 9.5% in 2011 to 6.9% in 2016. Compared with slowing-down economic growth, a series of structural data pertaining to three industrial structure, new jobs, and the ratio of R&D investment to GDP showed that China's economy is in transformation and continuous development. Proportion of tertiary industry added-value to GDP in 2012 is same to that of secondary industry, reaching 45.3%. In 2015 and 2016, this proportion respectively reached 50% and 51.6%. In the context of slowing-down economic growth, new urban jobs have increased continually from 12.21 million in 2011 to 13.12 million in 2015. From 2012 to 2016, the average annual growth rate of R & D funds is 12.34%. R & D funds expenditure of 2016 reached RMB 1.55 trillion Yuan, accounting for 2.08% of the GDP.

为了掌握中国经济结构变革的真实图景,借助国家“双创“示范基地第三方评估的机会,南开大学滨海开发研究院和南开经济研究所团队对包括北京海淀区、天津滨海新区中心商区、杭州余杭区、深圳南山区、成都天府新区、重庆大渡口区和两江新区展开了系列调查研究。调查发现,除了宏观经济指标,2012年以来中国经济的微观结构变革更加值得关注。正在发生的质变表明,以“双创”为导向的新经济正在形成和发展之中。

In order to learn the real picture of the structural transformation of the Chinese economy, and take the opportunity of Third Party Evaluation of MEI demonstration centers, teams from Nankai University Binhai Development Institute and Nankai Institute of Economics have made series of investigation and study on Beijing Haidian district, Central Business Area of Tianjin Binhai New Area, Hangzhou Yuhang District, Shenzhen Nanshan District, Chengdu Tianfu New Area, Dadukou District and Liangjiang New Area of Chongqing. Apart from macroeconomic indicators, findings indicates that structural transformation of the Chinese economy at microeconomic level since the year of 2012 merits more attention. The ongoing qualitative changes indicate that the New Economy with Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation as orientation is taking shape and developing.

首先,2012年以来,国务院及其相关部门先后围绕“双创”出台了22个文件,涉及创新创业体制机制、财税政策、金融政策和就业政策等多个领域。地方政府则对国务院“双创”政策的贯彻落实表现出极大的积极性和主动性。地方政府及其相关部门出台的与“双创”相关的政策文件累计超过2000件,形成了从创意培育、项目支持、企业孵化、企业成长和上市在内的系列政策体系。在政府的支持下,有效促进“双创”发展的社会氛围已经形成。

Firstly, the State Council and related departments have successively issued 22 documents relating to "Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation”. These documents involves systems and mechanisms of innovation and entrepreneurship, finance and taxation policy, financial policy, and employment policy etc. local governments are highly proactive and self-motivated in implementing the policies relating to "Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation" . Local governments and its related authorities have issued more than 2000 policy documents relating to "Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation”, generating a policy system including creativity cultivation, project support, enterprise incubation, enterprise growth and IPO. With the support of the government, the social atmosphere effectively facilitating the development of “Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation” has taken shape.

其次,以包括众创空间在内的“双创”载体为着力点,快速形成了一批“双创”集聚区。截至2016年9月,中国拥有众创空间3155家,是世界众创空间数量最多的国家。其中,由科技部认定的国家级众创空间数量为1337家,占全国众创空间数量的42.4%。在众创空间数量区域分布中,北京、上海、重庆、广东、浙江、山东和江苏位列前矛,尤其是北京、江苏、浙江和广东已经成为国内众创空间密集和最富“双创”活动的省(区和市)。

Secondly, with mass entrepreneurship spaces as the points of application, a batch of "Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation" clusters has taken shape. By September 2016, China has 3155 mass entrepreneurship spaces, ranking first in the world. Among others, 1337 are recognized by the Ministry of Science and Technology as state-level mass entrepreneurship spaces, accounting for 42.4% of the total. As for the regional distribution of the mass entrepreneurship spaces, Beijing, Shanghai, Chongqing, Guangdong, Zhejiang, Shandong, and Jiangsu have the most spaces. In particular, Beijing, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Guangdong are flourished with "Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation" spaces and activities.

从各地发展的实际经验看,包括众创空间在内的“双创”载体呈现出空间集聚态势。例如,北京中关村创业大街、杭州的梦想小镇和云栖小镇、重庆的两江新区和成都的青蓉国际社区。众创空间集聚区的形成和发展,推动了“双创”生态系统的形成和完善,已成为最富“双创”活力的新型创新区。

Learned from the practical development experiences of different regions, "Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation" carriers, such as the mass entrepreneurship space, have presented the trend of space clustering. for example, Beijing Zhongguancun Inno Way, Dream Town and Yunqi Town of Hangzhou, Liangjiang New Area of Chongqing and Chengdu Qingrong International Community. The inception and development of clusters of mass entrepreneurship spaces have driven the inception and improvement of the "Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation" ecosystem and become the most vigorous new innovative area with "Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation" as orientation.

第三,大学生和科技工作者的创业意愿增强,新创企业,尤其是独角兽公司数量快速增长。

Thirdly, entrepreneurial spirit of university students and scientific and technical workers are strengthening. The number of new and innovative enterprises, especially unicorn companies, grow rapidly.

与20世纪80和90年代出现的两次创业潮不同,新经济的创业主体是大学生、留学归国人员和科技工作者。中国科协的调查数据表明,2015年新毕业大学生创业的比例同比增长近一倍,在全国逾千万网络创业群体中,大学生占到60%。2014年,近40万留学归国人员中的15%选择自主创业。科技工作者对“双创”高度认同,50%对国家“双创”战略表示非常赞同,47.1%的表示比较赞同。49.1%的科技工作者表示有初步创业意愿,7.7%的有了初步的创业规划,2.5%已经开始创业。大学生选择创业的比例从2013年的2.8%和2014年的3.2%上升至2015年的6.3%。

Compared with the two entrepreneurial waves of 80s and 90s, entrepreneurial subjects of the New Economy are university students, returning brains and scientific and technical workers. as indicated by survey data from China Association for Science and Technology, the proportion of 2015 new graduates who choose to establish start-ups witnessed an nearly 100% increase; among the ten million plus Internet entrepreneurial groups around China, university students account for 60% . In 2004, 15% of nearly 400,000 returning brains choose to establish start-ups. Scientific and technical workers highly recognize "Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation" strategy, and 50% of them are "Very Agreeable", and 47.1% “Agreeable". 49.1% of scientific and technical workers have a preliminary entrepreneurial desire, and 7.7% of them have preliminary entrepreneurial plan, and 2.5% have already established their own start-ups. The proportion of university students chooses to establish start-ups increased from 2.8% in 2013, to 3.2% in 2014, and to 6.3% in 2015.

2012年以来,在“双创”浪潮中,涌现出一批独角兽公司。2015年,Spoke Intelligence and VB Profiles发布的报告显示,全球共发现229家估值超过10亿美元的“独角兽”公司,其中在中国发现了33家,主要分布在北京、上海和杭州。中国独角兽公司的数量仅次于美国,高于欧洲的13家,印度的5家和新加坡的2家。

Since 2012, unicorn companies have emerged in the waves of "Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation". As indicated in a report released by Spoke Intelligence and VB Profiles in 2015, there were 229 "unicorn" companies with the valuation over one billion U.S. dollars, out of which 33 are from China with the bases in Beijing, Shanghai and Hangzhou. The number of unicorn companies in China is just less than United States of America, but more than 13 in Europe, 5 in India and 2 in Singapore.

科技部火炬中心和长城战略咨询合作发布的《2016 中关村独角兽企业发展报告》和《2016 中国独角兽企业发展报告》显示,2016年全国共发现 131 家独角兽企业,其中中关村拥有 65 家独角兽企业,占比 49.7%。2016 年全国独角兽企业比 2015 年增加了 61 家,其中中关村增加独角兽 24 家,成为全国独角兽增加的主要来源。从创办的时间看,中国的大部分独角兽企业都是 2012 年后成立的。在中关村的独角兽公司中,2014 年及之后成立的有 24 家,占中关村独角兽企业数量的 36.9%。2012 年及之后成立的独角兽共有 35 家,占中关村独角兽企业数量的 54%,2011 年及之前成立的企业共有 30 家,占总数的 36%。

As indicated in the "2016 Zhongguancun Unicorn Enterprise Development Report" and "2016 China Unicorn Enterprise Development Report" jointly released by Torch High Technology Industry Development Center and Great Wall Strategy Consultants, there are 131 unicorn enterprises in China in 2016, out of which Zhongguancun have 65 unicorn enterprises, accounting for a ratio of 49.7%. The number of unicorn enterprises in 2016 increased by 61 than that of 2015. The number of new unicorn enterprises of Zhongguancun in 2016 reached 24, becoming the main source of China's new unicorn enterprises. Judged by the date of incorporation, most of China's unicorn enterprises are incorporated after 2012. Among the Zhongguancun unicorn companies, 24 of them are incorporated after 2014, accounting for a ratio of 36.9%. the number of Zhongguancun unicorn enterprises incorporated in and after 2012 is 35, accounting for 54% of the total; the number of Zhongguancun unicorn enterprises incorporated in and after 2011 is 30, accounting for 36% of the total.

第四,新产业、新产品、新业态和新模式持续涌现,新经济和动能开始形成。在创新型创业活动的推动下,新产业、新产品、新业态和新模式持续涌现。2017年第一季度的经济数据表明,与传统制造业相比,电子信息、智能制造、新能源、新材料等高新技术均呈现出快速成长的势头。随着计算机、移动终端和互联网等信息技术的广泛应用,包括第三方支付、网上购物、网络约车、网上订餐、在线医疗在内的新业态日新月异,不断改变着人们的生产生活方式,成为经济增长的新动力。

Fourthly, new industry, new product, new styles of business and new patterns continue to emerge. New Economy and new drivers begin to take shape. Driven by innovative entrepreneurial activities, new industry, new product, new styles of business, and new patterns continuously emerge. As indicated by the data of 2017Q1 economy, high and new technology industries like electronic information, intelligent manufacturing, new energy, and new materials present the momentum of rapid growth. the widespread application of Information Technologies such as computer, mobile termination and Internet, and the emerging of new styles of business including third-party payment, on-line shopping, Online Car-hailing, online meal ordering and online medical service are changing from day to day, unceasingly improving people's life styles and driving the economic growth.

“双创”对现实经济的影响不仅表现在新产业和新业态的出现,而且表现为对传统产业的改造,甚至是对农村的影响。阿里研究院报告显示,截至2016年8月,在全国共发现1311个淘宝村,广泛分布在18个省市区。淘宝村现象及其引发的农村集体创业,已经成为农村继续工业化的基本驱动力量。

The influence of "Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation” on the real economy is not only reflected by the emerging of new industry and new styles of business, but also the reflected by the reform of traditional industry or the rural areas. As indicated in a report of AliResearch, there are 1311 Taobao villages in China by August 2016, spreading over 18 provinces, cities and regions. The Taobao Village Phenomenon and the triggered rural collective entrepreneurship have become basic driving forces for continuing rural industrialization.

第五,为了适应新经济和新动能的发展,包括科技、教育和商事制度在内的制度改革正在加速推进。为了适应“双创”经济的发展,通过政府推动的商事制度改革,极大地便利于市场主体的创新创业活动。据中国科协的调查数据显示,2014年商事制度改革对“双创活动的影响显著。注册公司的平均时间由原来的26天降到现在的14天,领取营业执照的时间辽宁为5天,北京为3天,深圳最短为1天。因为商事制度改革大大降低了企业创建的成本,改革后日均注册企业由之前的0.69万家上升到1.1万家。

Fifthly, in order to adapt to the development of New Economy and new driving forces, system reforms relating to science and technology, education and commercial systems are being pushing forward at accelerated speed. To adapt to the development of Entrepreneurial and Innovative Economy, reform of commercial systems initiated by the government greatly promoted the innovative and entrepreneurial activities of market entities. As indicated by the survey data of China Association for Science and Technology, the reform of commercial systems in 2014 has remarkably influenced the entrepreneurial and innovative activities. Average time spent in registering a company was reduced from 26 days to 14 days. The award of a business licenses necessitate 5 days in Liaoning Province, 3 days in Beijing and only one day in Shenzhen. As the reform of commercial systems greatly reduced the cost of incorporating an enterprise, the average daily registration amount of enterprises after the reform was increased from 6900 to 11000.

在“双创”政策推动下,无论是科研院所还是大学都成为“双创”的主战场。据中国科协的调查(2015)显示,2015年,67.1%的在校大学生认为所有学校已经存在创业氛围。科研院所和大学的科研工作人员的创业意愿出现了大幅度提升。在5月16日,中国钢铁研究院召开“双创”工作大会,成立中国钢研大慧“双创”基地,发布了《中国钢研科技集团有限公司钢研大慧双创基地鼓励创新创业政策及实施意见》,国家的科研院所和集团正在成为“双创”的国家队。

Driven by the implementation of the "Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation" policy, both scientific research institutes and universities have become the main battlefield of "Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation”. According to an inquiry (2015) made by China Association for Science and Technology, 67.1% of university students believed that entrepreneurial atmosphere had formed in their respective universities. The entrepreneurial desire of staff from scientific research institutes and universities are greatly promoted. On May 16, China Iron & Steel Research Institute convened "Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation Conference", established China Steel Research Dahui Entrepreneurial and Innovative Base, and issued "Policies and Implementation Opinions by Steel Research Dahui Entrepreneurial and Innovative Base of China Iron & Steel Research Institute Group on the Encouragement of Innovation and Entrepreneurship", driving the scientific research institutes and the Group to become a national team of "Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation" .

正在发生的质变表明,中国正在从制造经济走向创新经济,以“双创”为导向的新经济在加速形成。以“双创”为导向的新经济形成和演化的基本逻辑表现为:基于第二次信息技术为主导的新科技产业革命,通过“双创”活动实现新兴科技的产业化,适应消费结构的变迁,主动推动供给侧结构变革,驱动中国经济转型和发展。在充满活力和富有效率的“双创”生态系统支撑下,“双创”活动的惯例化和常态化,是新经济的基本特征。

As indicated by ongoing qualitative changes, China is transforming from manufacturing economy to innovative economy and the New Economy with Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation as orientation is taking shape at rapid speed. The basic logic of inception and evolution of the New Economy with Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation as orientation is as follows: based on the second new science and technology industrial revolution with Information Technology as dominant element, the "Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation" activities will drive the industrialization of emerging science and technologies, help to adapt to the changes of consumption structures, and proactively push forward the supply-side structural reform, and the transformation and development of Chinese economy. Supported by the vigorous and efficient "Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation" ecosystem, the convention and normalization of conducting Entrepreneurial and Innovative activities are the essential features of the New Economy.

二、新经济的本质

II. Essence of the New Economy

正在兴起和发展的新经济,是以第二次信息技术革命为主导的新科技产业革命发生和发展的结果。与制造经济的发展相比,新经济的微观基础是创新型创业活动,表现为“双创”的惯例化和常规化,是典型的创新经济。作为新技术经济范式,数据和计算是新经济发展的关键投入要素。围绕着数据和计算的要素化,新经济不仅表现为包括大数据和云计算在内的新兴产业的发展,而且表现为互联网与传统经济的融合发展。

The emerging and growing new economy is the outcome of a new science and technology industrial revolution dominated by the second information technology revolution. Compared with the development of manufacturing economy, the micro basis of new economy is the innovative entrepreneurial activities, presenting the convention and normalization of "Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation”. Therefore the new economy is a typical innovative economy. As the normal form of a new technical economy, data and computing are the key elements to be invested in the development of the New Economy. With data and computing becoming key elements, the new economy no only presented the development of the emerging industries including big data and Cloud Computing, but also the integration and development of Internet and traditional economy.

2016年,新经济概念的正式提出,意味着中国经济进入新的发展阶段。对新经济本质及其发展逻辑的科学认识和把握,是制定经济发展新战略的前提和基础。

In 2016, the duly proposing of a new economic concept means that the Chinese economy has entered into a new development phase. Scientific understanding and mastering of the essence and development logic of a new economy is the precondition and foundation to formulate new economic development strategy.

首先,正在我国兴起的新经济不同于20世纪90年代的美国新经济。一方面,20世纪90年代的美国新经济是第一次信息科技和产业革命的结果,以IT产业为主导。而当前的新经济则是第二次信息科技和产业革命推动的,以互联网、物联网、云计算和大数据产业为主导;另一方面互联网与实体经济的持续融合,构成了新经济发展的主导逻辑。在线和非在线,已经成为区分传统经济和新经济的基本标准。

Firstly, the current emerging new economy is different from the U.S. new economy emerged in the 90s. On one hand, the new economy of the 1990s U.S. is the outcome of the first information technology and industrial revolution with IT industry as dominant element. Today's new economy is promoted by the second information technology and industrial revolution with Internet, Internet of Things, Cloud Computing and big data industry as dominant; on the other hand, the continuous integration between the Internet and the real economy constitutes the dominant logic of the development of the New Economy. Online and offline become the primary standard to distinguish traditional economy and the new economy.

第二,新经济的兴起和发展与消费结构变迁相关。新经济是以第二次信息技术为主导的新科技和产业革命推动供给侧适应消费结构变迁过程中出现的一系列新经济现象。其中,“双创”是新经济发展的基本驱动力,“互联网+”和智能制造是新经济重要表现维度。

Secondly, the emerging and development of the new economy relates to structure change of consumption. The New Economy is a series of new economic phenomena appeared when the Second-Information-Technology dominated new science & technology and industrial revolution adapt the supply-side to the consumption structure change. Among others, "Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation” is the basic driving force of the development of the New Economy. Internet Plus and intelligent manufacturing are important. Features of the new economy.

第三,新经济在产业发展方面表现出四个方面的特征:一是以信息技术突破应用为主导的诸技术相互渗透带来的新科技和产业革命,构成了新经济发展的科技和产业基础;二是信息和数据是新经济发展的核心要素;三是需求导向的社会分工的不断细化;四是智能制造为先导的三次产业的融合发展。

Thirdly, the new economy has four characteristics in terms of industrial development: first, new science and technology and industrial revolution brought about by inter-penetration of various technologies dominated by breakthrough and application of information and technologies; second, information and data are the core elements of the development of the New Economy; third, further detailed social pision of labor with demand as orientation; fourth, integration and development of the three industries with intelligent manufacturing as forerunner.

最后,新经济属于实体经济,即新实体经济。尽管有些企业家和学者存在着互联网经济属于虚拟经济的认识,但是总体看,互联网不是虚拟经济,而是在推动实体经济的发展过程中形成的新实体经济。尤其是随着互联网向实体经济的持续渗透,在变革实体经济的过程中,新经济发展将持续带来包括生产方式、生产组织方式、流通方式、制造模式和生活方式在内的一系列新变革。

In the end, New Economy is real economy, namely, the New Real Economy. Although some entrepreneurs and scholars believe that Internet economy is virtual economy, Internet is not virtual economy on the whole. Internet economy is the New Real Economy generated during the promotion of the real economy. With continuous penetration of the Internet into the real economy and the transformation of the real economy, the development of the New Economy will continuously bring about a series of new transformations including production method, production organizational form, circulation mode, manufacturing pattern and life-style.

长期以来,在发展战略的制定和实施中,我们更多地依赖对传统经济,尤其是工业经济发展逻辑的理论认识。可以说,工业化思维仍然在影响和制约着当前经济工作的思路和方法。对新经济的科学认识,将会打破固有思维,重新思考新阶段经济发展的动力和机制,制定有效的策略。

For quite a long time, we excessively rely on the understanding of the traditional economy, especially the theoretical understanding of the logic of industrial and economic development during the formulation and implementation of developmental strategies. We can say that the thinking of industrialization is still affecting and hindering the thinking and methods of the current economic development. The scientific understanding of the New Economy will help us to break the old habitual way of thinking, re-consider the driving force and mechanism of economic development at the new stage, and formulate effective strategies.

三、新经济形成和发展的动力和机制

III. Driving Force and Mechanism of the Inception and Development of the New Economy

互联网是迄今为止信息成本最低的科技革命。基于第二次信息技术革命的发生和发展,无论是在微观结构还是在资源配置方式和制度结构方面,新经济都与传统经济存在重要差异。从实际情况看,新经济发展的内在动力和机制方面的特征集中表现在以下几方面。

Internet is a technological revolution with the lowest information cost until now. Based on the occurrence and development of the second information technology revolution, the new economy is greatly different from traditional economy in terms of micro structure, resource allocation and institutional structures. Judged from actual conditions, the characteristics of the development of the New Economy in terms of intrinsic driving forces and mechanisms are as follows.

(一)新型创新区是新经济发展的引擎

 (I) New innovative areas are the engines of the development of the new economy

2012年以来,无论是北京海淀区还是深圳的南山区和杭州余杭区,成为新经济发展引擎的都不再是传统的工业园区和高新科技园区,而是新型创新区。随着“双创”资源的进一步聚集,新型创新区正在推动现在的经济中心城市向具有全球影响力的科技创新中心转型。作为新经济的聚集区和新动能的形成区,新型创业区是新阶段是我国经济发展的新引擎。

Since 2012, regardless of Beijing Haidian district, Shenzhen Nanshan District or Hangzhou Yuhang District, it is the new innovative area but not traditional industrial parks and high & new technology parks that has become the engine of the development of the New Economy. With the further gathering of "Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation" resources, new innovative areas are driving the transformation of the economically central cities into scientific innovation centers with world-wide influences. As clusters of the new economy and the birthplace of the new driving forces, the new entrepreneurial area is the new engine of China's economic development at new stage.

改革开放以来,在工业化的第一和第三阶段,包括位于近郊和远郊区的乡镇、工业园区和高新技术产业园区在内的工业聚集区是我国经济发展的主要空间载体。伴随着工业聚集区的兴起,城市中心区开始衰落。2000年以来,我们应对中心城区衰落的主要策略是通过住宅和商业地产开发,发展包括商贸、商务服务、金融、总部经济、文化和休闲旅游在内的服务业。2012年以来,新型创新区则成为城市规划和更新改造的新方向。与工业园区和高新技术园区不同,作为新经济聚集区的新型创新区表现出如下特征:

Since the reform and opening-up and at the first and third stage of industrialization, industrial clusters including villages and towns situated at suburbs and suburban districts, industrial parks and high & new technology industry parks are the major space carriers of China's economic development. With the emerging of the industrial clusters, the urban downtown area begin to decline. Since 2000, the main strategy we have adopted to deal with the decline of downtown area is to develop service industries including business, commercial service, finance, headquarters economy, culture, leisure and tourism through the development of residential and business real estate. Since 2012, new innovative areas have become the new direction of urban planning, renewal and transformation. Different from industrial parks and high & new technology parks, the new innovative areas, as clusters of the new economy, have the following characteristics:

(1) 与传统工业园区和高新技术产业园区相比,新型创新区首先是大学、科研机构、创新型企业、新创企业、众创空间和加速器的集聚区。创新资源的高度集聚是新型创新区的典型特征。

 (1) Compared with traditional industrial parks and high & new technology industry parks, new innovative areas are the cluster areas of universities, scientific research institutions, innovative enterprises, new and innovative enterprises, mass entrepreneurship spaces and accelerators. Intensive gathering of innovative resources is the typical feature of new innovative areas.

(2) 新型创新区主要是城市中心区和次中心区更新改造而来,强调交通、住宅、办公和商业及商务配套的邻近性和便利性。人口、知识密集度和文化的多样性,是新型创业区充满创新活力的关键因素。

 (2) Renewed or modified from downtown areas and sub-central areas, new innovative areas emphasize transportation, housing, and the distance and convenience of office, business and commercial facilities. Population, knowledge and various culture are the key elements to keep the new entrepreneurial district more innovative.

(3) 新型创新区常常是自发生产的,但是政府的精心规划同样发挥着重要作用。例如,北京海淀区的中关村大街和杭州余杭区的梦想小镇,既是企业自主选择的结果,又是政府规划加速发展的结果。在新型创新区的发展中,往往表现出鲜明个性和高水平规划的统一。

 (3) Though new innovative areas are usually emerged spontaneously, elaborate planning by the government is also of great importance. For example, Zhongguancun Avenue of Beijing Haidian district and Dream Town of Hangzhou Yuhang District are both independently chosen by enterprises and benefiting from the accelerated development under government planning. The development of new innovative areas often present the unification between distinctiveness and high level planning.

新型创新区之所以选择在城市中心区发展,一方面是因为制造不再是新科技和产业革命的主导,知识、信息和人才的集聚才是发展的第一要素。新兴企业和产业发展需要的不再是廉价的土地和劳动力,而是科研机构、知识、创意、关系资产和完善的商务配套环境;另一方面与从事新信息技术产业的人才和企业的地点选择偏好相关。这部分企业和人才更愿意选择交通和商务配套便利和完善的城市中心区,而不是郊区和远郊区。

New innovative areas are chosen to develop in the downtown because, on one hand manufacturing industry is no longer the key element of new science and technology and industrial revolution, but the gathering of knowledge, information, and talents is the most important element of development. The development of emerging enterprises and industries no longer need low-cost land and labor, but scientific research institutions, knowledge, creativity, related assets and perfect commercial supporting environment; on the other hand, the choosing of the location relates to the site-selecting preference of the talents and enterprises engaged in the new information technology industry. These enterprises and talents prefer to choose downtown areas with convenient and complete transportation and commercial supporting facilities, but not suburban areas.

为了推动新型创业区的发展,2016年5月,国务院办公厅印发了《关于建设大众创业万众创新示范基地的实施意见》,确定了首批28个双创示范基地。在28个国家级双创示范基地中,17个区域示范基地、4个高校和科研院所示范基地和7个企业示范基地。

To facilitate the development of new entrepreneurial areas, General Office of the State Council promulgated "Implementation Opinions on the Establishment of "Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation Demonstration Centers", and listed the first batch of 28 Entrepreneurial and Innovative Demonstration Centers. The 28 state-level Entrepreneurial and Innovative Demonstration Centers include 17 regional demonstration centers, 4 universities and scientific research institutes and 7 enterprises.

国家双创示范基地的建设是为了探索在创新经济发展过程中可复制和可推广的双创模式和典型经验,推动国家创新经济的发展。双创示范基地的设立主要考虑两个方面的因素:一是依托现有“双创”资源聚集的优势区域,发挥高校和科研院所和创新型企业的作用,引导双创要素投入,有效集成高校、科研院所、企业和金融、知识产权服务以及社会组织等力量,实施一批双创政策措施,支持建立一批双创支撑平台,探索形成不同类型的示范模式;二是充分考虑东、中、西和东北地区双创发展的情况和特征,依托各自的优势和资源,探索形成各具特色的区域双创形态。随着“双创”示范基地的建设和发展,创新表现出明显的极化态势。

The establishment of National Entrepreneurial and Innovative Demonstration Centers is to explore entrepreneurial and innovative patterns and typical experiences that can be replicated and spreadin the development of innovative economy, so as to promote the development of China's innovative economy. There are two considerations in the establishment of Entrepreneurial and Innovative Demonstration Centers: Firstly, rely on the advantageous areas gathered MEI resources and take the advantages of universities, scientific research institutes and innovative enterprises, guide the input of entrepreneurial and innovative elements, effectively integrate universities, scientific research institutes, enterprises, finance services, Intellectual Property services and social organizations to implement entrepreneurial and innovative policies and measures; support the establishment of a batch of entrepreneurial and innovative backing platforms and explore and generate different demonstration patterns; Secondly, take into full consideration of the conditions and features of entrepreneurial and innovative development of east China, the middle and the northeast, and explore and generate distinctive regional MEI patterns by taking respective advantages and resources. Along with the building and development of "Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation" demonstration centers, innovation presents obvious polarization phenomenon.

() 互联网和数据平台:资源配置的新机制

 (II) Internet and data platform: new mechanism of resource allocation

与工业经济相比,在第二信息技术革命推动新经济发展的过程中,平台逐渐成为资源配置的主导者。对平台在资源配置中主导作用的充分认识,是理解新经济发展规律和逻辑的关键。

Compared with industrial economy, platform gradually becomes the dominant element of resource allocation during the development of the New Economy driven by the Second Information Technology Revolution. Full understanding of the leading role of platform in resource allocation is essential to understand the development and logic of the new economy.

在新经济发展的初始阶段,平台的主要类型是交易平台。作为零售业变革的主导者,互联网交易平台通过整合包括商家、第三方服务商和物流在内的上下游产业链,形成了电子商务经济生态系统,使海量实时在线共享数据的产生成为可能。

At the preliminary stage of the development of the New Economy, the main function of platform is trading. As the leader dominating the transformation of retail industry, Internet trading platform has built E-commerce ecosystem through integrating businesses, Third Party service provider, upstream and downstream industry chains including logistics, making it possible to generate a massy amount of real-time online shared data.

交易平台虽然产生了海量实时在线数据,但是如果无法通过大数据、云计算和数据挖掘把海量实时在线数据转化为可共享数据和计算,将难以推动互联网与实体经济的深度融合。从交易平台向数据平台的过渡和演化,是新经济发展的关键。随着数据平台的发展,数据和计算将成为继土地、劳动、资本、技术和制度之后新的廉价投入要素。通过数据和计算赋能,数据平台持续推动互联网向实体经济渗透,形成范围更广的新实体经济生态圈。

Although trading platform generates a massy amount of real-time online data, it could not translate a mass of real time online data into shared data and computing through big data, Cloud Computing and data mining, and could not drive in-depth integration between Internet and real economy. The transition and evolution from a trading platform into a data platform is essential for the development of the New Economy. As the data platform develops, data and computing will become the new low-cost input elements following land, labor, capital, technology and systems. Powered by data and computing, data platform will continually promote the penetration of Internet into a real economy, generating a New Real Economy ecosphere with wider scope.

数据平台通过改变传统的链式交易、制造和供给体系,实现设计、生产、流通、贸易和消费全过程网络化,不断降低交易成本和生产成本,促进社会分工的加速细化。同时,数据平台不断重塑创新体系,使创新体系向创新生态系统演化,通过打破了传统创新组织之间的界限,降低知识重组的成本,使“双创”成为经济活动的“惯例”。

By changing the traditional chain trading, manufacturing and supply system, data platform could integrate design, production, circulation, trade and consumption into a network, unceasingly reduce transaction cost and production cost, facilitating accelerated further pision of social pision of labor. In the meantime, data platform unceasingly remolds innovative systems, driving the evolution from innovative system to innovative ecosystem. Data platform could smash the boundary between traditional innovative organizations and reduce the cost of knowledge restructuring, making MEI to become a "convention" of economic activities.

() 互联网与硬科技的融合发展

 (III) Integrative Development of the Internet and Hard Technology

以商业模式创新为主导的互联网创业是当前双创活动相对活跃的领域。互联网商业模式创业提升了经济运行效率,催生了一批新兴业态。与商业模式创新相比,互联网与硬科技的融合,代表了新经济发展的新方向。

Internet entrepreneurship centering on business model innovation is the active domain of the current entrepreneurial and innovative activities. Internet entrepreneurial activities have promoted the efficiency of economic operations and gave birth to new business patterns. Compared with business model innovation, the integration of Internet and hard technology represents the trend of New Economy.

互联网与硬科技的融合发展表现出二个方面的趋势。第一,以硬蛋科技为代表的数据平台的兴起和发展。硬蛋科技属于硬件创新创业领域的Offline+Online垂直平台,为硬件创新创业者提供包括硬件创新资讯、供应链知识和供应链需求对接在内的系列服务,被誉为制造业的阿里巴巴。到目前为止,硬蛋汇聚了7,000多个智能硬件创新创业项目,3,000家供应商和400万智能硬件粉丝。

Two trends occur while Internet integrates with hard technology. Firstly, the rising and development of data platform as represented by IngDan. IngDan technology is an Offline+Online vertical platform in the field of hardware innovation. It provides entrepreneurs with a series of services including innovation information, supply chain know-how, and right supplier connecting. Thus, it is called the Alibaba in manufacturing. So far, IngDan has gathered more than 7000 intelligent hardware innovation projects, 3000 suppliers and 4 million fans of intelligent hardware.

第二,以中关村智造大街为代表的硬科技“双创”聚集区的出现,预示着一批以硬科技“双创”为主导的新型创新区将快速崛起。中关村智造大街自2016年7月开街以来,快速聚集了包括国承万通、精唯信成和汉唐自远在内的创新型科技企业,开展物联网、传感器、人工智能、虚拟现实、3D打印和机器人等智能制造领域的创新创业活动。为了服务硬科技领域的创新创业,中关村智造大街打造了一整套“懂智造”的双创服务生态系统,涉及敏捷制造、工业设计、技术方案研发、检测认证、小批量试制、协同服务和市场推广七个方面。从源头上解决了硬科技创业从产业构思到市场推广全过程服务需求,形成独特的双创服务生态系统。

Secondly, the emergence of MEI Hard Technology clusters, represented by Z-Park I-M-WAY. It foresees the rapid uprising of a batch of new innovation areas with MEI Hard Technology as orientation. Many innovative technology enterprises including G-wearables, Trustworthy and Han Tang Zi Yuan have settled in I-M-WAY since its opening in July, 2016. And these enterprises are busy with entrepreneurial activities like the intelligent manufacturing of Internet of Things, sensors, AI, virtual reality, 3D printing and robots. In order to serve these enterprises, Z-Park I-M-WAY has built many “intelligence-friendly” MEI ecosystems, covering agile manufacturing, industrial design, technical solution R&D, test and certification, small batch trial production, collaborative services and marketing. Such unique MEI ecosystems can satisfy hard technology enterprises’ every need from industrial design to marketing.

() “政产学研新型混合组织的涌现

 (IV) The Springing Up of New Mixed Organization of “Government-Industry-University-Research”

随着国家科技投入的持续增加,原创成果的转移转化成为新经济发展的源动力。如何通过“政产学研”新型混合组织的创建,形成利益共享、风险共担的创新共同体,实现高校科研院之间、高校科研院所与产业之间、国内和国际之间的多层次协同创新体系,是原创科技成果转移转化的前沿。

As China's investment in science and technology is consistently increasing, the transfer and transformation of original works become the motive power for the development of the new economy. The frontier research of original work transfer and transformation is to build an innovation community who share benefit and risk based on the establishment of a new mixed organization—Government-Industry-University-Research in order to realize collaborative innovation among scientific research institutes, between these institutes and the industry, and between China and other countries.

作为创建不久的新型混合组织,北京协同创新研究院在推动原创科技成果产业化方面成为典范。北京协同创新研究院,创建于2014年8月,经过两年多的实际运行,形成了包括北京大学和清华大学在内的14家科研单位和包括商飞和新奥在内的100多家行业龙头及高科技领军企业实施科技创新和产业化项目的创新共同体。先后建成包括智能机器人、智能制造、智能汽车、半导体光电子、现代传媒技术与虚拟现实、未来网络、光电材料及应用、能源材料及应用、纳米材料碳材料、水处理及土壤修复、节能减排、现代制药与生物技术、医疗仪器设备及诊断技术、食品科学与工程、工业设计在内的18个协同创新中心。在推动原创科技成果的产业化方面,走在了全国前列。

As a new mixed organization, Beijing Institute of Collaborative Innovation (BICI) has set an example in promoting the industrialization of scientific and technological achievements. BICI was founded in Aug, 2014. In more than two years’ time, it has developed into a big innovation community with focus on scientific innovation and industrialization project. This innovation community consists of 14 R&D institutions including Peking University and Tsinghua University, and more than 100 industry leaders and high-tech enterprises, such as COMAC and ENN Group. BICI has built up 18 collaborative innovation centers, covering intelligent robot, intelligent manufacturing, smart cars, semiconductor optoelectronics, modern media technology and virtual reality, future networks, photoelectric material and its application, energy materials and its application, carbon nano-materials, water treatment and soil restoration, energy conservation and emission reduction, modern pharmaceutics and biotechnology, medical equipment and diagnostic technology, food science and engineering and industrial design. BICI is also a pioneer in China in terms of industrializing original scientific achievements.

在推动原创科技成果产业化方面,无论在运行机制还是在组织模式上,北京协同创新研究院都表现出明显的优势和适用性。第一,协同创新研究院把原创成果研发者、知识产权所有者、需求方、投资者和中介组织有机地结合在一起组成创新共同体,激发了企业家精神,形成了有效推动科技成果产业化的激励约束机制。第二,在资源配置方式上,形成了以市场为导向,产学研协同为主导,政府增进市场的新机制。第三,可复制和推广性强,具有极强的辐射带动。从成立至今短短两年时间内,各地政府和高新技术产业区纷纷通过参观、学习和洽谈业务的方式试图引进和复制协同创新研究院的创新模式。协同创新研究院模式在全国的复制和推广,能够在双创经济发展中发挥两个方面的作用:一是通过在高端创新要素聚集区设立协同创新研究院,加快科技成果的转移转化;二是通过在相对落后地区建立协同创新研究院分院,有利于欠发达地区实现异地科技创新资源与当地产业的对接,助推落后地区实施创新驱动发展战略。

When it comes to industrializing original scientific work, BICI shows great advantages and applicability in operating mechanism and organization pattern. Firstly, BICI organizes researchers, IP owners, demand side, investors and intermediary organizations into an innovation community, and entrepreneurship is thus boosted, incentive and restraint mechanism generated. Secondly, in terms of resource allocation, BICI has set up a new market-oriented mechanism with "industry-university-research synergy" playing the leading role and government bolstering the market. Thirdly, BICI’s model is easy to replicate and popularize, with strong radiation effect. Within two years’ time since BICI was founded, a number of local governments and high tech industrial parks have visited BICI to introduce its innovative mode through learning and business negotiation. The replication of BICI mode nationally may lead to two effects during the development of MEI: accelerating the transfer and transformation of scientific outcomes by setting up collaborative innovation institutes in high-end innovation clusters; setting up branches in relatively lag-behind areas is good for the connection between resources and local industries and helping these areas in realizing Innovation-driven Development Strategy.

(五) 开放和包容性的统一

(V)The Unification of Openness and Inclusiveness

在以“双创”为导向的新经济发展过程中,中国的“双创”活动表现出高度的开放性和包容性相融合的特色。新经济“双创”活动的开放性表现在三个方面:一是新经济的“双创”不是工业经济时代的创新形态,而是信息和知识时代的创新形态,即创新2.0。创新2.0不以企业为中心,而是以用户为中心,强调政产学研用的协同。创新主体是多元化,不仅包括企业和创业者,而且包括作为创客的个体;二是“双创”生态系统不仅是跨地域的,而且是国际化,是以全球研发为导向的。无论是中国的高铁还是C919的研发和制造都是全球研发的结果。

During the development of New Economy with MEI as orientation, China’s MEI activities shows openness and inclusiveness at the same time. The openness presents in the following three areas: firstly, the MEI of New Economy is the innovation of the age of information and knowledge instead of industrial economy, namely innovation 2.0. Innovation 2.0 centers on enterprises instead of clients, which focuses on the synergy among Government-Industry-University-Research. Innovation is to persify, which not only concerns enterprises and entrepreneurs, but also makers as inpiduals; secondly, MEI system is not only trans-regional, but also globalized. It is driven by global researches. China’s high-speed rails and the research and manufacturing of C919 are all the outcomes of global research.

包容性创新是指中国的“双创”不仅适用于城市和高端市场,同样适用于农村和中低端市场。中国地域和市场广阔和多元化特色,导致创新具有非常强的包容性特征。这方面有两个方面的突出表现:

Inclusive innovation means that China’s MEI is applicable to both cities, high-end markets, and rural areas and mid-and-low-end markets. China has vast territory and persified markets, which results in a kind of innovation with strong inclusiveness. There are two highlights:

一是在新能源汽车的研发和产业化过程中,不仅存在未来汽车这样与特斯拉产品相竞争的电动跑车,同样存在适合广大农村市场的低端电动汽车。例如,山东的低速电动汽车。尽管在技术路径的选择上强调现有成熟技术的组合,但是因为适合农村市场需求,产业发展迅速。

One is that during the research and industrialization of new energy vehicles, there are electric sports cars, like Future Vehicle that rivals Tesla. At the same time, there are low-end electric automobiles which meet the demand of rural areas, e.g. low speed electric car from Shandong Province. Sophisticated technology portfolio is advocated in terms of technological path, but because of rural market demand, the industry is developing rapidly.

二是电子商务经济发展过程中的淘宝村现象。借助于以淘宝为主导的新型商业生态系统,淘宝村已经成为农村继续工业化和脱贫致富的重要途径。

Another one is the Taobao Village during the development of E-commerce economy. Taking advantage of the new business ecosystem with Taobao as oriented, Taobao village has become an important way for rural areas to industrialize and to shake off poverty and become prosperous.

四、可能面对的挑战

IV. Possible Challenges

经过10年的探索和努力,尽管在创新经济的发展上取得了重大突破,但是中国同样需要面对挑战。

With 10 years' exploration and endeavor, China has made important breakthrough in the development of innovative economy, but China is also faced up with challenges.

第一个挑战来自工业经济发展的观念。工业经济的思维仍然在制约着创新经济发展战略的制定和实施。在加速工业化阶段,招商引资和优化投资环境是政府发展经济的主要策略,但是在创新经济发展过程中,引智创业和构建创新创业环境和生态系统成为政府新的策略选择。

The first challenge comes from the concept of the development of industrial economy. The thinking relating to industrial economy is still restricting the formulation and implementation of the development strategy of innovative economy. In the accelerating industrialization stage, attracting investments and optimizing investment environment are the government's main strategies of develop economy. However, attracting talents, encouraging entrepreneurship, constructing innovative entrepreneurial environment and ecosystem are the new strategic choices for a government in developing innovative economy.

第二个挑战来自体制改革或创新的滞后无法适应新经济的发展。与创新经济相适应的制度结构包括三个方面的内容:一是市场机制;二是包括知识产权保护和界定在内的法律和规则体系,在创新经济中,以知识产权保护为中心的制度体系就像中央银行,是新知识创造和商业化的催产士;三是包括政府、科研院所和大学在内的体制和制度。尤其是来自传统大学向创业型大学的转型和发展。

The second challenge is from the failure of lagged system reform and innovation to adapt to the development of a new economy. Institutional structure adaptable to an innovative economy includes three aspects: the first is market mechanism; the second is the system of laws and regulations including intellectual property protection and identification. In an innovative economy, institutional system with intellectual property protection as the core is just like the central bank, and is the catalyst of commercialization. Thirdly, systems and mechanism including the government, scientific research institutes and universities. In particular, the transformation and development of universities from traditional ones to entrepreneurial.

第三个挑战来自企业,尤其是企业家。如何适应创新2.0时代,形成开放、包容和共享的企业创新理念和思维,是激发企业家精神和领军型创新企业持续涌现的关键。

The third challenge is from the enterprises, especially the entrepreneurs. How to adapt to the Innovative 2.0 Age and generate opening-up, inclusive, and sharing enterprise innovative ideas and thinking is the key to stimulate entrepreneurship and the emergence of leading innovative enterprises.

五、结束语

V. Conclusion

对自主创新道路的探索,始于1979年且贯穿于中国经济改革和开放的全过程。无论是农村联产承包责任制还是市场取向的渐进改革方式和工业化过程中持续的市场创造,都属于世界经济发展史中的创新之作。

The exploration of an independent innovative path dates from 1979 and continue during the entire process of China's economic reform and opening-up. Rural Contract Responsibility System, market-oriented progressive reform and continuous market creation during the industrialization are innovative masterpieces in the history of world economic development.

“中国奇迹”的出现源于中国掌握了工业化成功的关键秘诀,即把农村改革和工业化作为国家工业化的第一步。农村改革和工业化不仅解决了粮食问题,而且在满足短缺经济条件下市场对轻工业产品高强度市场需求的过程中,创造出启动城市工业化所需的包括能源、动力、原材料和装备在内的中间产品市场需求。

"China Miracle" generates from the key secret of a successful industrialization mastered by China, namely, to set the rural reform and industrialization as the first step of national industrialization. Rural reform and industrialization not only resolved food problem, but also, during the process of meeting huge market demand on light industrial products under shortage economic conditions, created energy, power and raw materials to start urban industrialization and initiated market demand on intermediate products such as equipment.

在以城市为主导的工业化第二阶段,国有经济改革和外资的大规模引进在满足农村工业化创造的中间产品市场需求的同时,进一步创造出新的国际市场和现代服务业市场需求。2001年,日本学者率先提出中国已经成长为“世界工厂”。从2005年开始,中国进入工业化的第三阶段,即从制造经济向创新经济的转型发展阶段。从2006年提出建设创新国家至今10年过去了,以“双创”为导向的新经济的雏形已经显现在我们面前。

During the second industrialization stage with cities as the core, reform of state-owned economy and large-scale introduction of foreign capital met market demand generated in rural industrialization on intermediate products, and further created new demand for international market and contemporary service industry. In 2001, a Japanese scholar firstly put forward that China had already become a "World Factory". From the year of 2005, China entered the third stage of industrialization, shifting from manufacturing economy to innovative economy. Ten years have passed since the proposing of building an innovative nation in 2006. The embryo of the New Economy with Mass Entrepreneurship and Innovation as orientation is before us.

无论是工业化还是发展创新经济,中国的命运与世界都是休戚与共的。正如习近平主席在“一带一路”高峰论坛上所指出的,要将“一带一路”建成创新之路,加强在数字经济、人工智能、纳米技术、量子计算机等前沿领域合作,推动大数据、云计算、智慧城市建设,连接成21世纪数字丝绸之路。作为一个拥有悠久历史文化传统的发展中大国,在成为一个创新国家的过程中,所创造出的制度和文化将会具有更强的包容性,将为世界和平发展做出贡献。

Regardless of industrialization or developing innovative economy, destiny of China is closely related to that of the world. As Chairman Xi Jinping pointed out at the Belt and Road Summit, we need to build the Belt and Road into an innovative road, and strengthen the cooperation in the frontier fields of digital economy, artificial intelligence, nanometer technology and quantum computer, contributing to thedevelopment of big data and Cloud Computing, the building of smart city, and the connection of the 21st century digital Silk Road. China is a big developing country with long historical and cultural traditions. During the process to become an innovative nation, systems and culture created by China will be more inclusive, and valuable to make contribution to the peace and development of the world.


[[1]]从2012年开始,南开大学滨海开发研究院和经济研究所团队先后在北京、深圳、杭州、成都、重庆、苏州、山东、辽宁、河北、青海和天津展开系统调查研究,考察中国经济结构性变革的内容、结构和特征。本文是调查研究的成果之一。调查研究由南开大学经济研究所刘刚教授主持,主要成员包括:李强治、张长令、王超贤、马犇、崔鹏、洪卫、朱云曦、王宁、张鹏、杜爽、刘捷、刘晨、王金杰和张玮。

 

[1]  Since 2012, Teams from, Binhai Development Institute of Nankai University and the Institute of economics have conducted systematic investigation and study in Beijing, Shenzhen, Hangzhou, Chengdu, Chongqing, Suzhou, Shandong, Liaoning, Hebei, Qinghai and Tianjin to investigate the contents, structure and characteristics of the structural transformation of the Chinese economy. Investigation and study is directed by Professor Liu Gang from Nankai Institute of Economics, other leading members include Li Qiangzhi, Zhang Changling, Wang Chaoxian, Ma Ben, Cui Peng, Hong Wei, Zhu Yunxi, Wang Ning, Zhang Peng, Du Shuang, Liu Jie, Liu Chen, Wang Jinjie and Zhang Wei.

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